Ganges River | History, Location, Map, & Facts | avb4you.info
The Ganges or Ganga is a trans-boundary river of the Indian subcontinent which flows through . The Ganges joins the Yamuna at the Triveni Sangam at Allahabad, a holy confluence in Hinduism. At their Now flowing east, the river meets the Tamsa River (also called Tons), which flows north from the Kaimur Range and. Aug 27, The basic reason for giving the name of a particular river to the combination of the two rivers depends on the volume of water the rivers carry individually. For most of its course it is a wide and sluggish stream, flowing through one of the most fertile . The Ganges-Yamuna area was once densely forested. from the Ganges basin, and the land is now intensely cultivated to meet the needs of an.
The total length of the river is about km. The river is predominantly a meandering channel, but in several reaches, especially where small tributaries contribute sediment, braiding is evident with sand islands bifurcating the river into two or more channels Parua, after The annual flow of the Brahmaputra river basin from China to India is The annual flow of the Brahmaputra river basin from India to Bangladesh is The annual flow of the Ganges river basin from China to Nepal is All rivers in Nepal drain into the Ganges river with an annual flow of The annual flow of the Ganges basin from India to Bangladesh is The annual flow of the Meghna river basin from India to Bangladesh is ABased on observations of the flood cycle in the Ganges river, the flow starts decreasing in October, is minimum between the last week of March and the last week of April and is maximum between the last week of August and the last week of September Parua, after This is the largest in the world for a single outlet to the sea and exceeds even that the Amazon discharge into the sea by about 1.
Groundwater The groundwater potential in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins is quite high but it is primarily confined to piedmont areas in India. It has been estimated that the Ganges river basin in India and Nepal has an annual groundwater yield of Except for a limited area in the northwest, the top soil in most places in Bangladesh is composed of old alluvium with a large percentage of clay materials.
The old alluvium is dissected in old stream beds, which in turn are connected with the existing stream system Fazal, The groundwater resources in Bhutan are probably limited and are drained by the surface water network, which means that they are more or less equal to overlap between surface water and groundwater. Water quality In all the countries of the GBM river basin, the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality is now a matter of serious concern.
Water is essential to sustain agricultural growth and productivity. More than half of the morbidity in the GBM basin stems from the use of impure drinking water. Safe water supply and hygienic sanitation are basic minimum needs, which the GBM river basin countries are yet to meet in both rural and urban areas. A holistic approach is required to monitor the water quality in each country together with regional initiatives, both to prevent further deterioration and to bring about improvement in the quality of water.
Monitoring of water quality in the GBM rivers is not as extensive as it should be except in the case of the Ganges river in India and the Buriganga river in Bangladesh.
Coordination of their actions in order to deal with transboundary transmission of pollution and evolving a mechanism for real time water quality data exchange could lead to efficient water quality management Biswas, after In Bangladesh, irrigation water quality has deteriorated owing to pollution from agrochemicals, industrial waste and other sources.
Arsenic concentration has been found to be at a maximum within the upper 50 m depth of aquifers in most regions of the country Water Aid, In many places concentration of iron and arsenic in irrigation water has gone beyond the limit of safe water quality standards of Bangladesh and WHO. Some diseases and health hazards such as arsenicosis, blindness, physical disability, occur as a result of arsenic toxicity to humans RDA, Throughout the country, about 1.
The mitigation of the additional problems of salinity and arsenic in Bangladesh involves special action plans.
Saline intrusion in coastal areas could be addressed through dry season flushing of channels by means of methods such as storing monsoon water and resuscitating moribund channels. The Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project BAMWSP is presently engaged in assessing the extent, dimensions, and causes of the arsenic problem with a view to developing a long-term strategy for supplying arsenic-free water Biswas, after In Bangladesh, during the dry season groundwater has become an increasingly important source of water for irrigation, municipal and industrial purposes.
Some environmental hazards have been encountered in many areas and a number of adverse effects have emerged as a result of the over-abstraction of groundwater, such as lowering of water tables, reduction in dry season flows of rivers and streams, groundwater pollution, intrusion of saline water in coastal areas, ecological imbalance and possible land subsidence. There has been evidence of permanent lowering of groundwater levels in some locations, particularly in the Dhaka metropolitan area where the average annual decline in the groundwater level is about 3 m BADC, and in the northwest region of the country.
In India, the water quality of rivers in their upper reaches is good, though the importance of water use for cities, agriculture and industries, and the lack of wastewater treatment plants in the middle and lower reaches of most rivers cause a major degradation of surface water quality.
Groundwater is also affected by municipal, industrial and agricultural pollutants. The pollution control action plan of the Ganges basin was formulated in and has been enforced by the Ganges Project Directorate, under the Central Ganges Authority, to oversee pollution control and the consequent cleaning of the Ganges river.
The water quality in the middle stretch of the Ganges river, which had deteriorated to class C and D the worst class is E, the best Awas restored to class B in after the implementation of the action plan. Climate change The GBM rivers create flood problems in their respective basin areas during monsoon months almost every year.
Bangladesh, being the lower riparian country, suffers most from such floods which cause enormous loss of life and property Parua, after Climate change may alter the distribution and quality of GBM river basin water resources. Some of the impacts include occurrence of more intense rains, changed spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, higher runoff generation, low groundwater recharge, melting of glaciers, changes in evaporative demands and water use patterns in agricultural, municipal and industrial sectors, etc.
These impacts lead to severe influences on agricultural production and food security, ecology, biodiversity, river flows, floods, and droughts, water security, human and animal health and sea level rise. Bihar is the worst flood hit state in India. Hardly a year passes without severe flood damage. With the onset of the monsoon, rivers come down from the Himalayan hills in Nepal with enormous force, causing rivers like Ghagra, Kamla, Kosi, Bagmati, Gandak, Ganges, Falgu, Karmanasa, Mahanadi to rise above the danger level.
This results in severe floods in North Bihar. Bangladesh is now widely recognized as one of the countries that is most vulnerable to climate change. Increased variability of temperatures and rainfall and increased occurrence of natural hazards are expected to affect the availability of both surface water and groundwater.
Investments are needed to ensure a continuous and sustainable access to water resources. Water-related development in the basin Use of water of the Ganges river for irrigation, either by flooding or by means of gravity canals, has been common since ancient times. Irrigation was highly developed during the period of Muslim rule from the twelfth century onward, and the Mughal kings later constructed several canals.
The canal system was further extended by the British. The cultivated area of the Ganges valley in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar benefits from a system of irrigation canals that has increased the production of cash crops such as sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds. Higher lands at the northern edge of the plain are difficult to irrigate by canal, and groundwater must be pumped to the surface. Large areas in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are also irrigated by channels running from hand-dug wells. The Ganges-Kabadak scheme in Bangladesh, largely an irrigation plan, covers parts of the districts of Khulna, Jessore, and Kusthia that lie within the part of the delta where silt and overgrowth choke the slowly flowing rivers.
The system of irrigation is based on both gravity canals and electrically powered lifting devices Ahmad and Lodrick. Total area equipped for irrigation in the GBM river basin is estimated to be around Area actually irrigated is estimated at The equipped areas irrigated by groundwater and by surface water account for 67 and 33 percent respectively.
Of the 29 million ha equipped for irrigation in India inside the GBM river basin, 67 percent is irrigated by groundwater and 33 percent by surface water. The development of sprinkler and localized irrigation in recent years has been considerable, mainly the result of the pressing demand for water from other sectors, a fact that has encouraged government and farmers to find water-saving techniques for agriculture.
The Government has offered subsidies to adopt drip systems. Drip-irrigated crops are mainly orchards grapes, bananas, pomegranates and mangoes. Localized irrigation is also used for sugarcane and coconut.
Investment in drainage has been widely neglected in India, and where such investment has been made, poor maintenance has caused many drainage systems to become silted up.
On the eastern Ganges plain, investment in surface drainage would probably have a greater productive impact, and at a lower cost, than investment in surface irrigation.
Seasonal canals accounted for 58 percent of the area irrigated by surface water, permanent canals for 39 percent, and ponds for 3 percent. Most irrigation systems use surface irrigation basin, furrow.
Prayag - where the Yamuna meets the Ganga
Some areas in the hills and mountains use sprinkler irrigation, but no figures are available. In Bhutan, which is entirely located in the Brahmaputra river basin, most rivers are deeply incised into the landscape and hence the possibilities for run-of-the-river irrigation are limited. The irrigated areas are called wetland in the local classification.
This means that they have been terraced for basin irrigation.
AQUASTAT - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
In summer, almost all wetland is under rice cultivation. Double cropping of rice is limited to the lowest altitudes where the winter temperatures still allow its cultivation.
Where rice cannot be cultivated, wheat, buckwheat, mustard and potatoes are cropped on wetland areas during the winter season. The wetland areas can be cropped during the winter season, though watering of these winter crops is generally limited to one irrigation at the time of land preparation.
To a limited extent, farmers have started to irrigate horticultural crops, including orchards, using hose pipes and surface irrigation methods.
In Bangladesh, though the country has abundant surface water resources, particularly in the monsoon season, its flat deltaic topography and the instability of major rivers make large gravity irrigation systems both technically difficult and costly. On the other hand, during the dry season irrigation using surface water has become difficult or practically impossible owing to limited availability.
Therefore the use of groundwater for irrigation has become increasingly important. In the national irrigation coverage was 5. Inthe total area of wetlands throughout the country was 3. Thus, total water managed area is estimated at 6.
Surface irrigation is the only technology used in large irrigation schemes. Intotal harvested irrigated cropped area in Bangladesh was estimated at 5. Because of the low-lying topography, each year about 18 percent of Bangladesh is inundated during the monsoon season.
During severe floods the affected area may exceed 37 percent of the country and in extreme events like the flood about 66 percent of the country is inundated. Floods are caused by overspills from main rivers and their distributaries, overspills from tributaries and by direct rainfall. Flood control works can reduce floods from the first two, but only drainage can have any effect on the latter two.
The basic benefit of drainage is water control — supply as well as removal. The particular benefits can be: Ina master plan was initiated for water resources development.
This envisaged the development of 58 flood protection and drainage projects covering about 5. Three types of polders were envisaged: Flood control and drainage projects have accounted for about half of the funds spent on water development projects since Large-scale projects such as: Medium-scale projects such as: Total water withdrawal in the GBM river basin is estimated at Irrigation withdrawal accounts for In Bangladesh, in total water withdrawal within the GBM river basin was estimated at about Approximately 79 percent of the total water withdrawal comes from groundwater and 21 percent, from surface water.
In Nepal, in total water withdrawal was estimated at 9. In Bhutan, in total water withdrawal was estimated at 0. This represents a mere 0. About 94 percent of this water withdrawn 0. Total water withdrawal of China inside the GBM river basin has been estimated around 0. In Nepal, total dam capacity is estimated at 85 million m3, although potential for at least km3 exists.
Hydroelectricity accounted for more than 96 percent of total electricity generation. The two main diversion barrages are the ones of Kosi and Gandaki reservoirs.
In Bhutan, several large dams were constructed for hydroelectric power generation. The m high Punatsangchu dam on Puna Tsang river downstream of Wangduephodrang town is under construction. With the commissioning of the first two units of the Chhukha hydroprojects inand the other two units inthe electricity generation capacity has substantially increased and Bhutan became a significant exporter of electricity to India.
The expansion of hydropower production capacity in Bhutan has had an enormous impact as by the end of the Ninth Five-Year Planthe energy sector contributed to around a quarter of GDP. With a further doubling of capacity envisaged by the end of the Eleventh Five-Year Planthe energy sector will probably contribute close to half of GDP.
The following hydroelectric projects have been identified for future development: The project comprises two dams. India controls the flow of the Ganges river with a dam completed in at Farakka, 18 km from the border with Bangladesh.
The Farakka barrage is a not very high diversion structure and is not classified as a large dam. During the dry season it diverts water from the Ganges river to the Hooghly river through the Hooghly Canal.
This water is used for irrigation and the flow of the river has been greatly diminished. India is endowed with rich hydropower potential, ranking fifth in the world. The total water storage capacity constructed in the country is estimated at km3. Out of the seven larger dams with a reservoir capacity exceeding 8 km3 in India, only the Rihand dam is in the GBM river basin, on the Rihand river No large dams exist in the GBM river basin in Bangladesh.
Three barrages have been constructed across the Teesta, Tangon and Manu rivers, which are used as diversion structures for irrigation purposes only. Transboundary water issues The problems in the GBM river basin are typical of those related to conflicting interests of upstream and downstream riparians.
India has used its position of power in the basin to insist on a series of bilateral treaties rather than engaging in a multilateral negotiation World Bank, Inan agreement between the British Government and the State of Jind was signed to regulate the supply of water for irrigation from the Western Jumna Canal. Inan agreement between India and Bhutan took place regarding the Chhukha Hydroelectric Project. India financed the project with a 60 percent grant and 40 percent low-interest loan.
A joint commission for the exploitation of the Kosi river was set up between Nepal and India in andand another for the exploitation of the Gandak river in The Statute of JRC was accordingly signed in November to maintain liaison between the participating countries to ensure the most effective joint efforts in maximizing the benefits from common river systems to both the countries.
Please enjoy the list below and let us know of any other interesting confluences you are aware of. Perhaps we can do a follow-up post if there is interest!
The river on the left is the Rhone, which is just exiting Lake Lehman. The river on the right is the Arve, which receives water from the many glaciers of the Chamonix valley mainly the Mer de Glace before flowing north-west into the Rhone on the west side of Geneva, where its much higher level of silt brings forth a striking contrast between the two rivers.
Confluence of the Ilz, Danube, and Inn Rivers in Passau, Germany Photograph by b k on Flickr The Ilz is a relatively small mountain stream and has a blue-ish color while the Inn is a fairly large river flowing in from Salzburg, Austria at the top. The Inn River has more water flow than the Danube, yet flowing away from the city the three combined rivers are called Danube.
This photo is taken from the Oberhaus-fortress now a city museum on top of the Ilzstadt cliff above the city of Passau in Lower Bavaria, Germany. Brown, sediment-laden water flowing generally northeast to south from the Ohio River is distinct from the green and relatively sediment-poor water of the Mississippi River flowing northwest to south.
The color of the rivers in this image is reversed from the usual condition of a green Ohio and a brown Mississippi.Ganges Sangam at Allahabad, where Yamuna, Ganga and Saraswati meet
This suggests that the very high rainfall in December over the Appalachians and the northeastern United States has led to greater-than-normal amounts of sediment in the rivers and streams of the Ohio River watershed.
In the city of Chongqing it falls into Yangtze River. The clean water of Jialing River meets the brownish yellow water of Yangtze River. The Yangtze becomes more powerful after it absorbs the water of Jialing as it continues its path, passing through the Three Gorges and stretching thousands of miles.
For 6 km 3.